Investigated the effects of subsequent related information and individual differences in cognitive flexibility on prose recall. 70 undergraduates read a passage and then were given either consistent or contradictory incidental information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the nature of the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a 3-wk delay than after 2 days. These results were consistent with R. J. Spiro's (1975) findings with free recall. In addition, 3-wk Ss were more confident about correct recall than errors, indicating that errors resulted, in part, from retrieval processes. The negative relationship of spontaneous flexibility and the positive relationship of adaptive flexibility to constructive error are interpreted in terms of storage and retrieval effects in memory.
Hertel, P. T., Cosden, M., & Johnson, P. J. (1980). Passage recall: Schema change and cognitive flexibility. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 133-140.
Journal of Educational Psychology