Do people spontaneously categorize stereotypically masculine and stereotypically feminine trait and job labels according to gender? The present experiment provided a methodologically stringent test of automatic gender-based categorization using a modification of a semantic priming methodology. Subjects processing goals were manipulated by asking questions about primes that either did or did not require semantic processing. Results provide support for a spontaneous gender-based categorization of trait labels regardless of the processing goals. However, semantic processing goals appear to be necessary for a spontaneous gender-based categorization of job labels.
Karylowski, J. J., Wallace, H., Motes, M., Liempd, D. V., & Eicher, S. (1999). Using priming to study social categorization. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 42(1-2), 111-120.