Based on a framework grounded in the institution-based view, this paper addresses the extent of global patent system integration and development. Our findings suggest that nations’ patent systems have yet ‘met’ the ‘international standards’, despite national and international endeavor toward this goal. The impact of international institutions on national institutions is reflected in the process rather than the outcome. Among the three components of patent systems across 88 nations, conformity is the strongest for ‘patent mechanism', operations is the most diverse for ‘patent administration’ and ‘patent enforcement’ does not form a cross-nation divide due to most nations being moderate enforcers.
Yang, D., & Sönmez, M. (2013). Integration and divergence of patent systems across national and international institutions. Journal of World Business, 48(4), 527-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2012.09.008
Journal of World Business