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People tend to use brands and marks interchangeably due to their similarities. However, they are often nonsubstitutable to each other. This paper systematically examines the similarities and differences of these two terms in conceptual, operational and methodological manners taking account of history and international dimensions. Such clarification is important given the increasing significance of marks and brands for all stakeholders (rather than consumers only). The paper starts with the definitional understanding about the two terms. It then focuses on the history of these two terms to reveal how their evolvement has been. Next, it discusses their similarities and differences, including the concepts, operations and measurements. The paper concludes with the implications of these clarifications for research and education, and for relevant stakeholders, such as managers, policy makers and consumers.


Originally published under Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India


National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR)


New Delhi

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Journal of Intellectual Property Rights