Zinc Sequestration By Human Calprotectin Facilitates Manganese Binding to the Bacterial Solute-Binding Proteins PsaA and MntC
Zinc is an essential transition metal nutrient for bacterial survival and growth but may become toxic when present at elevated levels. The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is sensitive to zinc poisoning, which results in growth inhibition and lower resistance to oxidative stress. Streptococcus pneumoniae has a relatively high manganese requirement, and zinc toxicity in this pathogen has been attributed to the coordination of Zn(II) at the Mn(II) site of the solute-binding protein (SBP) PsaA, which prevents Mn(II) uptake by the PsaABC transport system. In this work, we investigate the Zn(II)-binding properties of pneumococcal PsaA and staphylococcal MntC, a related SBP expressed by another Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, which contributes to Mn(II) uptake. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrate that both SBPs harbor Zn(II) sites best described as five-coordinate, and metal-binding studies in solution show that both SBPs bind Zn(II) reversibly with sub-nanomolar affinities. Moreover, both SBPs exhibit a strong thermodynamic preference for Zn(II) ions, which readily displace bound Mn(II) ions from these proteins. We also evaluate the Zn(II) competition between these SBPs and the human S100 protein calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer), an abundant host-defense protein that is involved in the metal-withholding innate immune response. CP can sequester Zn(II) from PsaA and MntC, which facilitates Mn(II) binding to the SBPs. These results demonstrate that CP can inhibit Zn(II) poisoning of the SBPs and provide molecular insight into how S100 proteins may inadvertently benefit bacterial pathogens rather than the host.
Oxford University Press
Rosen, T., Hadley, R. C., Bozzi, A. T., Ocampo, D., Shearer, J., & Nolan, E. M. (2022). Zinc sequestration by human calprotectin facilitates manganese binding to the bacterial solute-binding proteins PsaA and MntC. Metallomics, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/mtomcs/mfac001