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A large line-following robot was built to transport semiconductor wafers in semiconductor factories. The criteria for a successful robot were decided upon prior to designing. The robot was designed using both mechanical and electrical engineering techniques to ensure that the final design met the outlined criteria. Each electrical subsystem was tested successfully prior to being installed on the robot. However once all the components were installed the robot was not able to move autonomously because the DC motors selected could not provide adequate torque. For future robot designs it is imperative that the motors be tested thoroughly because there is a substantial difference between specifications and actual performance.
Ankrah, Jude; Gergley, Marton; Gonzalez, Mike; Jarvis, Charles; and Kienle, Sean C., "Semiconductor Robot" (2008). Engineering Senior Design Reports. 13.