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When Valentín de Foronda, Spain's new consul-general for the United States, disembarked in Boston in 1802, he did not linger in New England. Instead, he made his way first to New York and then to Philadelphia, from where he decided to oversee the expanding network of Spanish officials stationed up and down the North American coast. In doing so, Foronda not only followed in the footsteps of Bourbon predecessors, but also tacitly confirmed that U.S. trade with the Spanish Empire remained centered in the Pennsylvania port.

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