The Effects of Vocal Modeling, Musical Aptitude, and Home Environment on Pitch Accuracy of Young Children

Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2006


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teaching models, musical aptitude, and home environment on vocal pitch accuracy of young children. Kindergartners (N = 134) in nine intact music classrooms were taught twice each week for eight months by one of three music teachers using one of the following treatments: A: the teacher always sang for, but never with, the children, B: the teacher always sang with, but never for, the children, and C: the teacher sang both for and with the children as she deemed appropriate. Children were pre- and post- tested using a Vocal Accuracy Assessment Instrument (Youngson & Persellin, 2001). The Primary Measures of Music Audiation (Gordon, 1979) and Home Musical Environment Scale (Brand, 1986) were also administered. Results indicated that all 3 treatments resulted in improved vocal accuracy, but no treatment effect significantly differed from the others. A significant positive relationship was found between the home musical environment and improvement in vocal accuracy (p = .0148).

Publication Information

Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education

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