In early essays and in more recent work, Fred Dretske argues against the closure of perception, perceptual knowledge, and knowledge itself. In this essay I review his case and suggest that, in a useful sense, perception is closed, and that, while perceptual knowledge is not closed under entailment, perceptually based knowledge is closed, and so is knowledge itself. On my approach, which emphasizes the safe indication account of knowledge, we can both perceive, and know, that sceptical scenarios (such as being a brain in a vat) do not hold.
Luper, S. (2006). Dretske on knowledge closure. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 84(3), 379-394. doi:10.1080/00048400600895862
Australian Journal of Philosophy