Multispacecraft data from the upstream solar wind, polar cusp, and inner magnetotail are used to show that the polar ionosphere responds within a few minutes to a southward IMF turning, whereas the inner tail signatures are visible within ten min from the southward turning. Comparison of two subsequent substorm onsets, one during southward and the other during northward IMF, demonstrates the dependence of the expansion phase characteristics on the external driving conditions. Both onsets are shown to have initiated in the midtail, with signatures in the inner tail and auroral oval following a few minutes later.
Pulkkinen, T.I., Baker, D.N., Turner, N.E., Singer, H.J., Frank, L.A., Sigwarth, J.B., Scudder, J., ... & Slavin, J.A. (1997). Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during an isolated substorm event: A multispacecraft ISTP study. Geophysical Research Letters, 24(8), 983-986. doi: 10.1029/97GL00816
Geophysical Research Letters