Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993)
Contribution to Book
In Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476 (1993), the U.S. Supreme Court held that a penalty-enhancement law that doubled the standard punishment for individuals who committed crimes based on their abstract beliefs was consistent with the free speech rights protected under the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In this application, a belief biased against white people because of injustices done to blacks, when that belief was the motive for criminal behavior, was not entitled to First Amendment protection.
Hermann, J. R. (2004). Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993). In D. Schultz (Ed.), The encyclopedia of civil liberties. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
The Encyclopedia of Civil Liberties